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Impacts and Risk Reduction

The literature on the potential impacts of climate change is now well established but still growing and becoming more comprehensive.

Dealing with the impacts of climate change will require both strong Risk Management, and there are also significant links to Disaster Risk Reduction.

This section contains publications on all three topics. Click on "More..." or the image to access the document.

Linking Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation and Loss & Damage: Activities under the APN Climate Adaptation Framework

Type: Paper

Publisher: Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research

Date: 2014

This publication details new projects funded by the APN in 2014 under its Climate Adaptation Framework. These focused activities tackle the links between climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) in the context of loss and damage (L&D). More...

WorldRiskReport 2014

Type: Report

Publisher: Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft (Alliance Development Works) & United Nations University – Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS)

Date: 2014

The WorldRiskIndex calculates the risk of becoming the victim of a disaster resulting from an extreme natural event, i.e. by multiplying the vulnerability index by the exposure index. Given this year’s thematic focus “The city as a risk area”, for the first time, risk has also been assessed for urban areas. But regardless of whether urban or rural areas, development definitely helps mitigating the risk of disasters. More...

Reducing urban heat risk

Type: Report

Publisher: ARUP

Date: July 2014


Our cities are getting hotter. Extreme hot weather events are happening more frequently and as a result London and other major cities around the world face significant risks. How do we develop approaches to understand and address urban heat risk? This report, identifies the factors which contribute to urban heat risk, and has developed approaches and responses to address these factors. More...

A stronger, more resilient New York

Type: report

Editor: The city of New York, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg

Date: 2013


On June 11, 2013, the City of New York released “A Stronger, More Resilient New York”, a comprehensive plan that contains actionable recommendations both for rebuilding the communities impacted by Sandy and increasing the resilience of infrastructure and buildings citywide. More...

Fourth session of the global platform for disaster risk reduction proceedings

Type: proceedings

Editor: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR)

Date: 2013


The proceedings of the Fourth Session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction highlight the four days of deliberations, discussions and presentations via various forums, which called for a shared vision and commitment for the next 30 years – a trans-generational compact for the sustainability of development. More...

Flood Management and Governance Structure in Lagos, Nigeria

Type: paper

Author: Lookman Oshodi

Date: 2013


The paper examines the risk of flood and risk management practice in Lagos, comparative institutional approaches to flood management in different parts of the world and subsisting governance structures. Download the paper here.

It is not too late: preparing for Asia's next big earthquake - with emphasis on the Philippines, Indonesia, and China: Policy Note

Type: policy note

Publisher: World Bank, GFDRR

Date: 2010


The policy note provides concrete recommendations for policy-makers in the region to address disaster risks facing public infrastructure. More...

Queensland recovery and reconstruction in the aftermath of the 2010/2011 flood: events and cyclone Yasi

Type: report

Publisher: World Bank, The Queensland Reonstruction Authority

Date: 2011


The report documents the achievements and progress made in Queensland and includes examples of global practice that the World Bank has collected in the field of reconstruction and risk reduction from across the world. More...

Acting Today For Tomorrow: A Policy and Practice Note for Climate and Disaster Resilient Development in the Pacific Islands Region

Type: policy and practice note

Publisher: World Bank, GFDRR

Date: 2012


The policy and practice note grows out of extensive consultations with countries, regional organizations, donors and other development partners, and it is addressed primarily to high-level policymakers and decision makers in the Pacific Islands region to guide disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation planning across a range of institutions at all levels. More...

ASEAN: Advancing Disaster Risk Financing and Insurance in ASEAN Countries: Framework and Options for Implementation

Type: report

Publisher: World Bank, GFDRR

Date: 2012


The report identifies key recommendations to support and encourage the further development of cost-effective, affordable, and sustainable disaster risk financing and insurance in ASEAN Member States. Read the report’s key findings and recommendations here.

Flood Risk Management and Urban Resilience Workshop

Type: Workshop Proceedings

Publisher: World Bank, GFDRR

Date: 2012


The proceedings summarize the discussions of an international workshop attended by national and local-level policy-makers from East Asia and the Pacific, global experts on urban flood risk management and disaster risk reduction, and donor and partner organizations to share good practice on flood risk management and discuss key challenges and measures that cities can adopt to better prepare and manage flood risk. More...

Five Feet High and Rising: Cities and Floods in the 21st Century

Type: Report

Author: Abhas Jha, Jessica Lamond, Robin Bloch, Namrata Bhattacharya, Ana Lopez, Nikolaos Papachristodoulou, Alan Bird, David Proverbs, John Davies, Robert Barker

Publisher: World Bank

Date: 2011


The research paper captures latest research on flooding and available measures that can be taken to reduce and manage current and future flood risk. More...

Safe homes, stronger communities: a handbook for reconstruction after natural disasters

Type: Handbook

Author: Abhas K. Jha, Jennifer Duyne Barenstein, Priscilla M. Phelps, Daniel Pittet, Stephen Sena

Publisher: World Bank

Date: 2010

The handbook assists policy makers and project managers engaged in large-scale post-disaster reconstruction programs make decisions about how to reconstruct housing and communities after natural disasters.


Best Practice Guidelines: Engaging with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Communities in Times of Disaster

Type: Report

Author: Christchurch City Council

Date: 2012

This report is part of a process initiated by the Community Language Information Network Group (CLING) established in Christchurch as part of the inter-agency framework for response to the Canterbury earthquakes. The purpose of the process is to learn from experience to date and to develop guidelines that can be used in the long process of recovery in Christchurch, as well as to assist agencies in other areas – central and local government as well as civil society organisations – to be better prepared to communicate with culturally and linguistically diverse communities in the event of a civil emergency. More...

Toward Resilience: A Guide to Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation

Type: Guide

Author: Marilise Turnbull, Charlotte L. Sterret, Amy Hilleboe

Date: 2013

The guide is an introductory resource for staff of development and humanitarian organizations working with people whose lives and rights are threatened by disasters and climate change. It provides essential introductory information, principals of effective practice, guidelines for action in a range of sectors and settings, case studies and links to useful tools and resources, for the application of an integrated, rights-based approach to disaster reduction and climate change adaptation. The guide is also a useful resource for other stakeholders, including staff from local, district and national government offices, the United Nations, donors, as well as social and natural scientists. More...

Early Warning Systems

Type: Report

Author: UNEP

Date: 2012

This in-depth bulletin introduces the basic concepts of early warning systems, the role of earth observation for disasters and environment and it focuses on the existing early warning/monitoring systems while addressing the need to fill in the operational gaps for slow-onset hazards both in monitoring, communication and response phases to facilitate timely decision-making. More...

Climate Change Impacts Matrix

Type: Table

Author: ICLEI

Date: 2011

This matrix of climate impacts was developed by ICLEI and will be included in a forthcoming book of the Resilient Cities 2010 Conference Papers. The matrix tracks physical climatic change (drought, flooding) against human systems and activities (urban infrastructure, agriculture). More...

Climate Change, Disaster Risk, and the Urban Poor

Type: Brochure 

Publisher: World Bank Group

Date: May 2011

The brochure outlines the work of the World Bank's Mayor's Task Force on Climate Change, Disaster Risk, and the Urban Poor. The initiative is between the World Bank and 4 mayors of major cities: Dar es Salaam, Jakarta, Mexico City and Sao Paulo. The initiative will be globally launched at Resilient Cities 2011. More...

Flood Risks, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Benefits in Mumbai

Type: Report

Author: Hallegatte, S. et al.

Publisher: OECD (Environment Working Paper No. 27)

Date: 2010

This study looks in depth at the potential direct and indirect effects of extreme flooding on the city of Mumbai. It looks at the opportunities for adaptation and the benefits this adaptation would bring, based on the upper boundary of projected climate changes. More...

Mega-Stress for Mega-Cities: A Climate Vulnerability Ranking of Major Coastal Cities in Asia

Type: Report

Author: WWF

Date: 2009

WWF has created an overall ranking system for the climate vulnerability of 11 cities in Asia. Using a series of criteria under the headings Environmental exposure, socio-economic activity Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity, Dhaka was considered the most vulnerable city, with Jakarta and Manila following closely behind. The first is situated in a major river basin, the other two are coastal cities. More...

The Vulnerability of Global Cities to Climate Hazards

Type: Academic article

Author: De Sherbinin A, Schiller A, Pulsipher A

Publisher: Environment & Urbanization, 19 (1), 39-64

Date: April 2007

This paper focuses on the vulnerability of 3 specific cities: Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro and Shanghai. It demonstrates the localized nature of climate vulnerabilities, and discusses the implications for urban planners and managers. More...

IHDP Update: The implications of global environmental change for human security in coastal urban areas

Type: Newsletter

Editor: Douglas F. Williamson

Publisher: International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change

Date: October 2007


The IHDP magazine covers climate change adaptation topics, including disaster risk reduction, vulnerability, coastal zones, and integration of technical tools and community-based approaches to adaptation.  This issue features a number of contributions from specialists tackling theoretical aspects of these issues, and further provides select case studies in cities such as Hamburg, Varadero, Mumbai, Shanghai and Rio de Janeiro. More...

Climate Change: impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation in developing countries

Type: Report

Publisher: UNFCCC

Date: 2008

This report focuses on climate change in four regions of the world: Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Small Island Developing States. More..

Harnessing synergies: mainstreaming climate change adaptation in disaster risk reduction programmes and policies

Type: Report

Author: Harris, K and Bahadur, A

Publisher: Institute of Development Studies and actionaid

Date: 2011

The quest to integrate climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction continues with a new report which argues the time is ripe to bring these two areas together. The report seeks to lay the foundation for the creation of more practical guidelines and recommendations on how to integrate these two growing professions in policy and practice. More...

Adaptive Disaster Risk Reduction: Enhancing Methods and Tools of Disaster Risk Reduction in the light of Climate Change

Type: Report

Author: United Nations University Insitute for Environment and Human Security

Publisher: German Committee for Disaster Reduction

Date: March 2011

This very recent report looks at the issue of linking Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA). It does so in a concrete way, exploring specific tools and measures for DRR and their applicability to CCA. More...

Local Governments and Disaster Risk Reduction: Good Practices and Lessons Learned

Type: Report

Author: UNISDR

Date: March, 2010

This compilation of 14 case studies from around the world was created to support the UNISDR's Making Resilient Cities Campaign 2010-2011. The report stresses the four major roles of local governments in various aspects of disaster risk planning: co-ordinating a platform for awareness building, engage local citizens, strengthen internal institutional capacities, and devising and implementing new tools and techniques. More...

Strengthening Climate Change Adaptation through Disaster Risk Reduction

Type: Briefing Note (Number 03)

Publisher: UNISDR

Date: 2010 

This Briefing Note gives a broad overview of the links between Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: focusing on the national level it suggests both need to become central to development planning. More...

Assessing progress on integrating disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in development processes

Type: Discussion Paper

Author: Mitchell, Tom; van Aalst, Maarten; Villanueva, Paula Silva

Publisher: Institute of Development Studies (Strengthening Climate Resilience programme)

Date: 2010

This report focuses on the integration of adaptation and disaster risk reduction in three areas:  international agreements, financial mechanisms, at the national level and in knowledge and practice. It suggests that there is limited integration, and both are struggling to be mainstreamed into development planning. If this continues, policy incoherence and ineffective use or resources will be the result, according to this paper. More...

Closing the Gaps: Disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change in developing countries

Type: Report

Author: International Commission on Climate Change and Development (CCDC)

Publisher: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sweden

Date: May 2010

This report offers recommendations to vulnerable countries and communities in strengthening their resilience to climate change. More...

Flash Flood Risk Management : A Training of Trainers Manual

Type: Training Manual

Author: Shrestha, A.B ; Chapagain, P.S ; Thapa, R 

Date: 2011

By outlining the types, causes and impacts of flash floods and corresponding management methods, Shrestha et al creates a training manual for those with even the most basic knowledge of floods and impacts. More...